The hand is the multi-fingered extremity at the end of the arm. It is one means by which humans have changed the world by creating gigantic buildings and machines, tiny electronics and high-fived each other at those accomplishments.
Mankind’s greatest achievements are all thanks to the capabilities of our hands: gross and fine motor movements. Gross motor movements allow us to pick up large objects, and fine motor movements allow us to pick up much smaller things.
Hands are what raise buildings, paint masterpieces, compose symphonies, and hold newborn child. They are great works of art capable of creating great works of art.
It is also a means of expression when it completes words, or acts as articulator in sign language.
The forelimbs of Homo sapiens and all members of primate are provided with hands. Quadrumane (Latin word for "four hands") is a term for monkey that dates from the eighteenth century. In contrast man was called "bimanous." Hands of primates are an example of homology. Raccoon forwards members also have hands; it is in this case an example of convergent evolution.
A human hand is made of 27 bones. They fall into 3 categories:
Universal means to communicate, the human hand is often used as a symbol.
For decades, 3D modeling and realistic physics simulations have enabled entire industries to create, optimize and manufacture their products, while simplifing the whole process. In parallel, the video game industry has brought to life entire virtual worlds, populated with credible artificial life.
The 3DEXPERIENCE platform brings those worlds together as an online cloud, making life easier for creators to develop innovative uses of 3D applications and to publish 3D experiences across devices.
Dassault Systèmes uses the 3DEXPERIENCE platform to promote the use of professional-grade software in consumer-facing applications. 3D experiences, also known as serious games, open the door to new uses, such as communication and experiential marketing, smart documentation, training and education.
It is proven that learning by doing provides a better retention of information. Virtual worlds are the perfect application of that principle. Experiencing a 3D Experience as a virtual patient would help you understand how to treat others more efficiently. Gamification also plays a role by transforming learning dynamics and promoting both team spirit and competition between users.
Bones box is a social learning 3DExperience, an online 3D real-time serious game to learn anatomy, in particular the bones composition of your hand. Your challenge is to assemble in a record time all the bones of the hand. Pay attention to the names of the bones, as they will help you to get a mental picture of which bones go where.
Beyond the medical community, many other industries can be transformed by these technologies. Imagine it!
Prof. Emmanuel Masmejean, 51 years old, is the head of Hand, upper limb and peripheral nerve surgery service at the European Georges Pompidou Hospital (HEGP).
Prof. Masmejean is also teacher and supervisor for the certificate "Sport medicine" at Paris Descartes Medicine University. As a member of "French Orthopedic and Traumatology Surgery Society" and "French Hand Surgery Society", he is a co-writer of the annual edition of the "Cours européen de pathologie chirurgicale du membre supérieur et de la main" with Prof. Fontaine, Le Nen and Liverneaux. He is used to travel around the world through the association "Traumatology without borders" in order to transfer his knowledge and to train qualified surgeons to improve their capacities.
This service is part of the Traumatologic and Orthopedic Surgery department. This department is dedicated to upper limbs and peripheral nerve pathologies and more specifically sports pathologies. It has three main missions: care, teaching and research. It is one of the main European centers for hand and upper limb surgery.
More information can be found on the official website: handsurgery.fr.